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    life history of Imam shfi'i

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    Afolabi Wasiu

    Posts : 25
    Join date : 2013-11-20

    life history of Imam shfi'i

    Post by Afolabi Wasiu on Thu Dec 19, 2013 12:24 am

    Introduction
    The biography of al-Shāfi‘i is difficult to trace. Dawud al-Zahiri was said to be the first to write such a biography, but the book has been lost.[4][5][6] The oldest surviving biography goes back to Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (died 327H/939) and is no more than a collection of anecdotes, some of them fantastic. The first real biography is by Ahmad Bayhaqi (died 458H/1066) and is filled with what a modernist eye would qualify as pious legends. The following is what seems to be a sensible reading, according to a modern reductionist point of view.
    Family
    al-Shāfi‘ī belonged to the Qurayshi clan Banu Muttalib which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim to which Muhammad and the Abbasid caliphs belonged. Hence he had connections in the highest social circles, but he grew up in poverty.
    767 – 786: Al-Mansur to Al-Hadi's era[edit]
    Early life, studies with az-Zanji in Mecca[edit]
    He was born in Gaza, near the town of Asqalan. While still a child, his father died in Syria and thus his mother decided to move to Mecca when he was about two years old. His family roots were from Yemen, and there were more members of his family in Mecca, where his mother believed he would better be taken care of. He is reported to have studied under Muslim Ibn Khalid az-Zanji, the Mufti of Mecca at his time and is considered the first teacher of Imam ash-Shafi'i.[7]
    Studies with Imam Malik in Medina[edit]
    He moved to Medina to teach others of the message of Islam and be taught by Malik ibn Anas. He memorized Muwatta Imam Malik at a very early age whereby Imam Malik was very impressed with his memory and knowledge.[8]
    786 – 809: Harun al-Rashid's era[edit]
    After that he lived in Mecca and Baghdad, until 814/198.
    Among his teachers were Malik ibn Anas and Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, whom he studied under in Madinah and Baghdad.
    He was appointed as a judge in Najran in the time of Harun ar-Rashid. Sunnis portray that his devotion to justice, even when it meant criticizing the governor, caused him some problems, and he was falsely accused of aiding the Alawis in a revolt. He was taken in chains before the Caliph at Raqqa in 803/187.[9] Shaybānī was the chief justice at the time, and his defense of Shafi'i, coupled with Shafi'i’s own eloquent defense, convinced Harun ar-Rashid to dismiss the charge, and he directed Shaybānī to take Shafi'i to Baghdad. He was also a staunch critic of Al-Waqidi's writings on Sirah.
    In Baghdad, he developed his first madh'hab, influenced by the teachings of both Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik. Thus, his work there is known as “al Madhab al Qadim lil Imam as Shafi’i,” or the Old School of ash-Shafi'i.
    al-Shafi'i left Baghdad in 804/188, possibly because Hanafi followers had complained to Shaybani that Shafi'i had become somewhat critical of the school during their disputations; as a result, Shafi'i is said to have participated in a debate with Shaybani over their differences, though who won the debate is disputed.[10] After spending some time teaching in Mecca, where Hanbal is said to have heard him lecturing at the Sacred Mosque,[11] Shafi'i eventually returned to Baghdad in 810/194.
    809 – 813: Al-Amin's era[edit]
    Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin (787–813) (Arabic: محمد الأمين بن هارون الرشيد), Abbasid Caliph. He succeeded his father, Harun al-Rashid, in 809/193 and ruled until he was killed in 813/197.
    813 – 820: Al-Ma'mun's era[edit]
    Caliph Al-Ma'mun is said to have offered Shafi'i a position as a judge, but Shafi'i declined the offer.[12] In 814/198, Shafi'i decided to leave Baghdad for Egypt, although the precise reasons for this move are uncertain. It was in Egypt that Shafi'i dictated his works to students. Several of his leading disciples would write down what Shafi'i said, and Shafi'i would then have them read it back aloud so that corrections could be made.[13] Shafi'i's biographers all agree that what works we now have under his name are the result of those sessions with his disciples.[14]
    Death
    At least one authority says that Shafi'i died as a result of injuries sustained from an attack by supporters of a Maliki follower named Fityan. The story goes that Shafi'i triumphed in argument over Fityan, who, being intemperate, resorted to some form of abuse. The Governor of Egypt, with whom Shafi'i had good relations, ordered Fityan punished by having him paraded through the streets of the city carrying a plank and stating the reason for his punishment. Fityan's supporters were enraged by this treatment, and they attacked Shafi'i in retaliation after one of Shafi'i's lectures. Shafi'i died a few days later.[15] However, Shafi'i is also said to have suffered from some sort of intestinal illness, so the precise reason for Shafi'i's death is unknown.[16]
    He died at the age of 54 on the 30th of Rajab in 204 AH (20 January 820 AD) in al-Fustat, Egypt, and he was buried in the vault of the Banū ‘Abd al-Hakam, near Mount al-Muqattam. The qubba was built in 1212/608 by the Ayyubid Al-Kamil, and the mausoleum remains an important site today.[17][18]
    Legacy
    Imam al-Shāfi‘ī developed the science of fiqh unifying 'revealed sources' - the Quran and hadith - with human reasoning to provide a basis in law. With this systematization of shari'a he provided a legacy of unity for all Muslims and forestalled the development of independent, regionally based legal systems. The four Sunni legals schools or madhhabs- keep their traditions within the framework that Shafi'i established.
    Imam al-Shāfi‘ī gives his name to one of these legal schools Shafi'i fiqh - the Shafi'i school - which is followed in many different places in the Islamic world: Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, Somalia, Yemen as well as Sri Lanka and southern parts of India.
    Saladin built a madrassa and a shrine on the site of his tomb. Saladin's brother Afdal built a mausoleum for him in 1211 after the defeat of the Fatamids. It remains a site where people petition for justice.[19]
    Among the followers of Imam al-Shāfi‘ī’s school were:
    Bayhaqi
    Hakim al-Nishaburi
    Jalaluddin Suyuti
    Al-Dhahabi
    al Ghazali
    Al-Nawawi
    Ibn Hajar Asqalani
    Hafidh ibn Kathir
    Imām an-Nawawi
    Imam Al-Mawardi

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