Insight Mission World Forum

Insight Mission World Forum

To facilitate balanced growth of Muslim generation culturally, morally, intellectually and spiritually, to become holistic and insightful in serving the cause of their Creator.


    ISLAMIC SCIENCE

    Share
    avatar
    1st Amiyru Shuqqo

    Posts : 55
    Join date : 2013-11-11
    Age : 26
    Location : Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode.

    ISLAMIC SCIENCE

    Post by 1st Amiyru Shuqqo on Sun Dec 08, 2013 3:34 pm

    Islamic Science

    Many notable Islamic and non-Islamic scientists lived and practiced during the Arab Golden Age. Among the achievements of Muslim scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form (simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moon), advances in optics, and advances in astronomy.

    Scientific method

    Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) was significant in the History of scientific method, particularly in his approach to experimentation, and has been referred to by his modern biographer Bradley Steffens and others as the "world’s first true scientist".
    Mathematics Girih tiles arranged in quasicrystal order is an example of the advancements that had taken place in the Islamic Golden
    Age.

    Islamic mathematics

    In calculus, Alhazen discovered the sum formula for the fourth power, using a method readily generalizable to determine the sum for any integral power. He used this to find the volume of a paraboloid. He could find the integral formula for any polynomial without having developed a general formula.

    In geometry, Medieval Islamic art from the 15th century intuitively echoed principles of quasicrytalline geometry which were discovered 500 years later. The art uses symmetric polygonal shapes to create patterns that, without leaving gaps, can continue indefinitely without repeating its pattern, in a way which can be directly compared to what are now considered quasi-crystals. It was previously thought Islamic design was done with straight edge rulers and compasses, but Lu and Steinhart now argue that the patterns were created by tessellating a small number of different tiles with complex shapes, evolving into what would now be described as quasi-periodic shapes by the fifteenth century. The Swedish Academy, which granted Dan Shechtman the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of quasicrystals in molecular structures, stated, "Aperiodic mosaics, such as those found in the medieval Islamic mosaics of the Alhambra Palace in Spain and the Darb-i Imam Shrine in Iran, have helped scientists understand what quasicrystals look like at the atomic level".

    In trigonometry, Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī introduced the general Law of sines in his The book of unknown arcs of a sphere in 11th century. This formula relates the lengths of the sides of an arbitrary triangle (not just limited to right triangles) to the sines of its angles.

    Biology

    In a discussion broadcast by ABC. the palaeontologist and practising Muslim Gary Dargan said that al-Jāḥiẓ had made observations that described evolution: "Animals engage in a struggle for existence; for resources, to avoid being eaten and to breed. Environmental factors influence organisms to develop new characteristics to ensure survival, thus transforming into new species. Animals that survive to breed can pass on their successful characteristics to offspring."

    Islamic medicine
    The eye according to Hunain ibn Ishaq. From a manuscript dated circa 1200. Medicine was a central part of medieval Islamic culture. Responding to circumstances of time and place, Islamic Physicians and Scholars developed a large and complex medical literature exploring and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine (from the National Library of Medicine digital archives). Islamic medicine was built on tradition, chiefly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Greece, Rome, and Persia. For Islamic scholars, Galen and Hippocrates were preeminent authorities, followed by Hellenic scholars in Alexandria. Islamic scholars translated their voluminous writings from Greek into Arabic and then produced new medical knowledge based on those texts. In order to make the Greek tradition more accessible, understandable, and teachable, Islamic scholars ordered and made more systematic the vast and sometimes inconsistent Greco-Roman medical knowledge by writing encyclopaedias and summaries. (from the National Library of Medicine digital archives) Pagan Latin and Greek learning was viewed suspiciously in Christian early medieval Europe, and it was through 12th century Arabic translations that medieval Europe rediscovered Hellenic medicine, including the works of Galen and Hippocrates. Of equal if not of greater influence in Western Europe were systematic and comprehensive works such as Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, which were translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times. (from the National Library of Medicine digital archives)

    Institutions Health care
    Hospitals in this era were the first to require medical diplomas to license doctors. In the medieval Islamic world, hospitals were built in most major cities; in Cairo for example, the Qalawun hospital had a staff that included physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. Medical facilities traditionally closed each night, but by the 10th century laws were passed to keep hospitals open 24 hours a day and hospitals were forbidden to turn away patients who were unable to pay. Eventually, charitable foundations called waqfs were formed to support hospitals, as well as schools. This money supported free medical care for all citizens. The first institutions for the care of mentally ill people were also established.”

      Current date/time is Mon Oct 22, 2018 11:51 am